Bearing a large bony frill and three horns on the skull, and its large four-legged body possessing similarities with the modern rhinoceros, Triceratops is one of the most recognizable of all dinosaurs and the best-known ceratopsid. They noted that if the primary purpose of the structures was species recognition, they would have differed in the shape of a single structure because additional structures would have been redundant at additional cost. They suggested that the close relationship between Kosmoceratops and Spiclypeus from Montana in the north indicated there had been some short-lived geographic connection. Their phylogenetic analysis found Kosmoceratops to be the sister taxon to Vagaceratops, in a clade grouped with derived chasmosaurines from the latest Campanian and Maastrichtian stages of the Late Cretaceous epoch including Triceratops, but not closely related to the more basal (or "primitive") Chasmosaurus. Eric Roberts at the James Cook University, Australia, another member of the team, says the 13 horns adorning Kosmoceratops are not strong enough to … There is a forehead-like hump on the skull roof in front of the eye sockets. Buddy, Tank, and the other kids go on a quest to track down Ceratopsians with horns numbering from 1 to 15. During the Late Cretaceous, Laramidia was separated from Appalachia, the eastern North American landmass, by the Western Interior Seaway. Tank, who has 3 horns, wonders why Mayor Kosmoceratops has 15, and Protoceratops has only 1. In a 2010 press release presenting Kosmoceratops, Utahceratops, and Vagaceratops, Sampson stated that most of these "bizarre features" would have been insufficient weapons against predators, but would have been used to intimidate or fight rivals of the same sex and attract individuals of the opposite sex. Buddy, Tank, and the other kids go on a quest to … The most famous of the Kosmoceratops is Mayor Kosmosceratops. Kosmoceratops also have a forehead-like hump on the roof of … , Two clades (groups consisting of all taxa that share a common ancestor) of ceratopsid dinosaurs—Centrosaurinae and Chasmosaurinae—are recognized based mainly on the elaborate ornamentation of their skull roofs. A response to Padian and Horner", "The 'species recognition hypothesis' does not explain the presence and evolution of exaggerated structures in non-avialan dinosaurs", "Patterns of divergence in the morphology of ceratopsian dinosaurs: sympatry is not a driver of ornament evolution", "Revised geochronology, correlation, and dinosaur stratigraphic ranges of the Santonian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) formations of the Western Interior of North America", "Mountain building triggered Late Cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation", "Late Cretaceous dinosaur biogeography and endemism in the Western Interior basin, North America: A critical re-evaluation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kosmoceratops&oldid=970856035, Late Cretaceous dinosaurs of North America, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 August 2020, at 20:23. Kosmoceratops (/ ˌ k ɒ z m ə ˈ s ɛ r ə t ɒ p s /) is a genus of ceratopsid dinosaur that lived in North America about 76.4–75.5 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous period.Specimens were discovered in Utah in the Kaiparowits Formation of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in 2006 and 2007, including an adult skull and postcranial skeleton and partial subadults. The name triceratops, of course, means three face horns, and it did indeed have three face horns. Kosmoceratops. Triceratops was a big animal, around 10 feet high at the shoulder, or 3 meters, and about 30 feet long, or 9 meters. , In a 2011 conference abstract, paleontologist Denver W. Fowler and colleagues suggested that many ceratopsid genera were merely ontogenetic morphs (or growth stages) of other genera and that Kosmoceratops was an immature stage of C. irvinensis (with the prominent skull ornamentation reducing with age).  Assigned specimens include UMNH VP 16878, a disarticulated skull of a subadult (between juvenile and adult) about half the size of the adult, missing the premaxilla, rostral, and predentary bones, and specimen UMNH VP 21339, a disarticulated subadult or adult.  In 2020, paleontologists Denver W. Fowler and Elizabeth A. Freedman Fowler stated that CMN 8801 may be more reliably assigned when better understanding of the anatomy in the front part of chasmosaurine skulls is reached. Kosmoceratops appeared in the southern province after the barrier appeared. He disputed that it had migrated there from the south, which was claimed by Sampson and colleagues (making its name, "wandering horned face", a misnomer). , A partial skull (cataloged as CMN 8801) discovered in 1928 by fossil collector Charles M. Sternberg in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, was assigned to Chasmosaurus russelli in 1940, but only to Chasmosaurus in 1995, as the lack of a neck frill prevented the skull from being identified as a particular species.  In 2016, paleontologist James A. Campbell and colleagues did not support the assignment of specimen CMN 8801 to Kosmoceratops, as they found the features this was based on to be either influenced by taphonomy (changes occurring during decay and fossilization) or to fall within the variation among Chasmosaurus specimens (though they did not assign it to a particular species in the genus). The teeth of ceratopsids were adapted to processing fibrous plants; coprolites (fossilized dung) from the Kaiparowits Formation that contain wood may have been produced by ceratopsids. , In 2017, the US government announced plans to shrink the Grand Staircase-Escalante (to little over half its size) and Bears Ears monuments to enable coal mining and other energy development on the land, which was the largest reduction of US national monuments in history. This national monument was established in 1996 in part for the preservation and study of its fossils, and the surveys there have yielded a wide array of unique dinosaur fossils. Tank, who has 3 horns, wonders why Mayor Kosmoceratops has 15, and Protoceratops has only 1. That Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops were not closely related to each other or to Chasmosaurus and Mojoceratops from the coeval Dinosaur Park Formation, and that Vagaceratops from Alberta overlapped with Pentaceratops from New Mexico in time, were cited by Sampson and colleagues as evidence against the claim that northern and southern dinosaur assemblages were not coeval during this time. and his naming of a new species of Pentaceratops (P. aquilonius), both from the Dinosaur Park of Alberta, Longrich argued against the idea of distinct northern and southern dinosaur provinces, since the two genera were now known from both southeastern and northern North America. Kosmoceratops appeared in the preschool show Dinosaur Train (Scott D. Sampson the namer to this dinosaur appeared in this show). They noted that many large ceratopsians had openings in their frills, making them of little use in defense, and that the wide variety in the size and orientation of their horns did not have an obvious function in combat. It was first named by Scott D. Sampson, Mark A. Loewen, Andrew A. Farke, Eric M. Roberts, Catherine A. Forster, Joshua A. Smith, and Alan L. Titus in 2010 along with the chasmosaurine genera Utahceratops (also from the monument) and Vagaceratops (from Alberta). Kosmoceratops was a chasmosaurine ceratopsid and was originally suggested to be closely related to Vagaceratops but this has been debated, some authors finding the … It has four horns, two protruding in a v-shape away from its eyes, and another two splaying out the side of its head. Lucas and colleagues conceded that there was some endemism that could not be accounted for by sampling biases, but they agreed with Longrich that this may have been due to competition or dietary specialization. The Kosmoceratops has similar facial features at the Utahceratops, but has 10 horns across the rear margin of its bony frill that point downward and outward. Alternatives to the existence of a barrier include that the discrete provinces were separated by zones of faunal mixing, or that there was a continuous gradient or cline throughout the altitude, with no distinct endemic zones. After the barrier dissolved around 75.7 million years ago, the Kosmoceratops lineage (represented by Vagaceratops) that had been restricted to southern Laramidia dispersed to the north, giving rise to all later chasmosaurines, such as Anchiceratops and Triceratops.  The basin was broad, flat, crescent-shaped, and bounded by mountains on all sides except the Western Interior Seaway at the east.  After concluding in 2014 that Vagaceratops was more closely related to Chasmosaurus than Kosmoceratops, Campbell suggested that Vagaceratops originated in northern Laramidia. She also determined that the largest Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops were adults, and therefore ruled out that one was the juvenile of the other. This is different to other ceratopsians, as their horns are either forwards or backwards oriented. It has been postulated that there was a latitudinal array of dinosaur "provinces" or biomes on Laramidia during the Campanian and Maastrichtian ages of the Late Cretaceous, the boundary lying around modern northern Utah and Colorado; the same major clades are known from the north and south but are distinct from each other at the genus and species levels. song / Buddy and Tank Triceratops are best friends, and they share a love for comparing features. With fifteen well-developed horns and horn-like structures, Kosmoceratops possessed the most ornate skull of any known dinosaurs; this included one nasal horncore, two postorbital horncores, two epijugals, and ten well-developed epiossifications at the back of the frill. Well-drained areas further away from wet areas were dominated by conifers up to 30 m (98 ft), with an understory comprising cycads, small dicot trees or bushes, and possibly ferns. During the Late Cretaceous, Laramidia was separated from Appalachia, the eastern North American landmass, by the Western Interior Seaway. physical proportions, means that it is among the shortest known frills for a chasmosaurine ceratopsiandinosaur. At the top of the frill there are ten small horns, the central eight of which curve down and towards the braincase, while the two horns on the end The name Kosmoceratops richardsoni, means ornamented horned face (kosmos, Greek for ‘ornamented’ and ceratops, Greek for ‘horned face’). Kosmoceratops was a herbivore.It lived in the Cretaceous period and inhabited North America.Its fossils have been found in places such as Alberta (Canada) and Arizona.. Quick facts about Kosmoceratops: Existed from Campanian Age to 70.6 million years ago They found that display patterns diverged widely overall while those of sympatric species did not differ significantly from those of non-sympatric species, concluding that the hypothesis did not have statistical support among ceratopsians. Contrary to previous studies, Kosmoceratops was found to be closer to Chasmosaurus, and together with Vagaceratops, represented the most derived and youngest members of that lineage. These features also indicate that ceratopsians had an elevated metabolism and were homeothermic endotherms (or "warm-blooded"), like modern birds and mammals. The evolutionary radiation of ceratopsids appears to have been restricted both in time and geographically (the turnover of species was high, and each existed for less than a million years), most taxa being known from latest Cretaceous sediments in the Western Interior Basin, therefore appearing to have originated and diversified on Laramidia. The Kosmoceratops name refers to the many horns on the creature's head. How many horns does a Kosmoceratops have? They suggested that the curving of these epiossifications occurred stepwise on the lineage leading to Kosmoceratops, those in the middle curling first, followed by those at the sides. Kosmoceratops is also considered closely related to Spiclypeus, which had a similar frill.  Most ceratopsid genera are generally considered monotypic (containing a single species). Though chasmosaurines have traditionally been considered the "long-frilled" ceratopsids, Kosmoceratops had the shortest frill relative to its width among chasmosaurines and the smallest parietal fenestrae relative to the total area of the frill of any ceratopsid. It had a triangular beak with a pointed tip and a blade-like nasal horn with a flattened upper portion. As was typical for chasmosaurines other than Chasmosaurus, it had relatively large epijugal ossifications ("cheek horns"). In 2010, Sampson and colleagues placed Kosmoceratops in the latter group due to the premaxilla having a narial strut and a triangular process, as well as the presence of an elongated squamosal bone. Ceratopsians, for example, had elaborate nasal horn, brow horn, jugal boss, frill midline, and frill edge features, as well as differences in body size and proportions, while the absence or presence of a single horn would have been enough to differentiate between sympatric species.  Among the discoveries made were three new ceratopsian (horned dinosaur) taxa, one of which was identified from two localities (UMNH Locality VP 890 and 951) discovered by volunteer field crew member Scott Richardson during the field seasons of 2006 and 2007. Sampson and colleagues had therefore also reinterpreted the pattern of epiossifications in Vagaceratops similarly, but Campbell suggested that it had four or five epiparietals instead, therefore finding it to be the sister taxon to Chasmosaurus rather than Kosmoceratops. The horns above the eyes are long, thin, and pointed. By this time, a barrier had appeared in the area of Utah and Colorado that separated the two provinces. At an indeterminate point, at least two adult Nasutoceratopsappeared in the wild after the events at the Lockwood Manor. It has ten horns and spikes on its frill, two horns above each eye, one horn on the tip of its nose, and one horn coming out of each cheek! Kosmoceratops had 10 horns and spikes on its bony frill, plus 2 horns above each eye, horns projecting from its cheeks, and a horn on its nose. The squamosal bones of Kosmoceratops were strongly curved in side view, and their side margins were parallel in top view. As well as the usual one over each eye, on the nose, and two cheek horns, Kosmoceratops has another 10 folded over the top of its tall frill like a fringe.  While not supporting endemism, Fowler and Fowler suggested in 2020 that there would have been a subtle gradational provincialism of chasmoraurines from North to South, with the lineage including Chasmosaurus being more abundant in the North, Kosmoceratops being its southernmost member, while the lineage including Pentaceratops was more abundant in the South. Gates and colleagues suggested that the increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity during the Campanian was due to orogenic events (which lead to changes in the Earth's crust where continental plates meet) in the Western Interior Basin, including the incipient confluence of the Sevier Orogenic Belt and plate tectonics on Laramidia, which formed mountains that isolated ceratopsids and hadrosaurids and led to their diversification. The nasal horncore, the bony projection from which the nose horn grew, is flattened and blade-like. Two endemic faunas may have existed in separate biomes or "provinces": one to the south of what is now Utah and Colorado, and one north of this region. The Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops bones sampled by Levitt did not show evidence of lines of arrested growth (annual growth lines), and compared with the ceratopsids Pachyrhinosaurus, Centrosaurus, and Einosaurus from further north which did have growth lines, this may indicate that bone growth reacted to climate and that Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops could sustain their growth throughout the year due to their more equitable southern climate.  Levitt reported that every bone of the assigned subadult or adult specimen UMNH VP 21339 appeared to have been broken before depositing, and its matrix is stacked siltstones and mudstones with minor sandstones, which suggests a pond environment. As 19–26 epoccipitals on the creature 's head who found the holotype and many other fossils Grand... At Grand Staircase-Escalante chasmosaurines, inhabited Laramidia, an island continent at the Lockwood Manor now forms western America. 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